Kappen & Nacke (2013): The Kaleidoscope of Effective Gamification

Kappen & Nacke (2013): The Kaleidoscope of Effective Gamification

Description

Drawing on Self-Determination Theory, this framework comprises four concentric layers. The innermost “Motivated Behaviour Layer” focuses on intrinsic motivation (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) and extrinsic motivation (e.g., badges, points, and leaderboards). The surrounding “Game Experience Layer” deals with actions, challenges, and achievements. The “Game Design Process Layer” includes interface, mechanics, models, and principles. Finally, the outermost “Perceived Layer of ‘Fun’” includes elements that generate excitement, surprise, and other phenomena that are often considered enjoyable. The framework was developed particularly with the gamification of business applications in mind.

Key source(s) for the framework